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ENGLISH. K'TEST-TOTAL (VI). The LATEST CATEGORIES and the SPECIAL ELEMENTS CATEGORY.

D  CATEGORY: The players of this category have a poor capacity of specific effort and poor results in all the morpho-physiological determinations (there were cases of abandoning the second track).

Table with the D CATEGORY players and their results.


Table with the D CATEGORY players and their results.


Table with the distribution of the number of games for the D CATEGORY players.


The reference - chart of the heart rate for the D CATEGORY players.


COMMON MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SPORTING REFERENCE POINTS that prove the validity of the test:

1The heart rate curve highlights the cardio-vascular shock at the attempt of keeping up a high pace during and after the first track, in order to ensure continuity of effort to the body, regardless of the required parameters.

· From the very beginning, just like in the case of the C category players, immediately after the track, one can notice that the heart rate reaches a peak of 182 pulsations/min (which is considered too high). This shows that the previous break is insufficient. In fact, it is the first clear sign that the body does not make lactacid and aerobic adjustments.

· The first sinusoids recorded after the track and the first 20-metre and 50-metre sprints could show a slight adjustment tendency (especially after the 50-metre sprints). The further evolution of the curve shows, in fact, the cardio-vascular reaction of the player’s body, which, from a sprint to another, constantly accumulates lactic acid without being able to metabolize anything in the end.

· The fact that the heart rate ratio of over 175 pulsations/min. (which represents over 100% of the maximum heart rate for many players) highlights the extreme work intensity of the physiological systems in order to provide reasonable parameters of continuing the effort.

· By looking at the heart rate curve two questions rise: How far apart are the psychological density/intensity during training and the requests from one another? Methodologically speaking, what were the exercises in the training sessions used for?

· The fact that, after the second track, the pulse values go down in all the cases should not fill us with enthusiasm: the pulse decrease is slow and it is kept at a high rate for a fairly long time (160 pulsations/min. after 2’30’’ is not a normal value). The decrease in the concentration of lactic acid in the blood does not show too much metabolical efficiency, but this is another issue.

2The enormous concentration of lactic acid accumulated post-effort is homogenously distributed for all the players so it does not need further comments. The concentration of lactic acid after the resting period (15 min. rest) highlights the slow coming to the normal of the post-effort parameters. The causes of this process malfunctions are the following: the fact that the tracks and the repeated sprints (by accumulation of lactic acid in the blood) seriously affect the energy metabolism shows that there is a lack of specific training for adjustment to effort (high intensity training using their own body weight, maximal sprints etc.), a lack of aerobic capacity or a very low level of the aerobic capacity. All this, together with the fact that the resting periods prove to be insufficient are consistent with the low level of mental involvement during typical training sessions.

3As one can notice in the table, for most of the players it has been recorded a difference higher than 2’’5/100 between the time obtained at the end of the second track and the time obtained at the end of the first track. It is an enormous difference and it implies total lack of body control; most of the neuro-muscular components are utterly affected (the propioceptive control, the alternation of concentric-eccentric contractions, spurt, braking etc.) and the player finds it difficult to carry out specific moves, his playing performance.

4 – In correlation with 3, the devastating effect of the metabolical changes (subsequent to the test) on the players’ minds is obvious. The large number of grades 11 on the BORG CR 10 SCALE emphasize what in morpho-physiological terms the chronometer, the heart rate measuring device and the lactic acid measuring device show. What the BORG CR 10 SCALE highlights is the psychological effect on the players of this category: lack of self-confidence, lack of confidence in the momentary opportunities that the game offers. Given its subsequent metabolical effects, after such effort the subconscious self-examination phase will last longer and will lead to inefficiency or slow reactions, with their well-known consequences in the football game.

5Final conclusion: only by studying the anamnesis of any C category (or even D category) player can the following question be answered: given the same conditions and training programme for all the players, why are there such differences (except for the individual genetical background)? Within this category we will find various football situations, such as: injuries, late transfers (due to the player’s not being fit for the game), lack of discipline, volitional deficiencies etc. The purpose of K’TEST TOTAL is to entail the player’s playing capacity at a definite moment. The purpose of this test is not to use the analysis of the data base obtained to design special programmes to eliminate the deficiencies, although this can be done.

FINAL PROFILE. From a physiological point of view the specific features of this category are the following:

· On cardio-vascular level we must accept a ratio of more than 175 pulsations/min. during the succession of the 20-metre and 50-metre sprints;

· There must be at least a tendency of getting to normal of the post-effort parameters visible in the chart;

· A concentration of lactic acid of maximum 17 mMoles/l.;

· Even the slightest reduction of the lactic acid concentration must be present in the post-effort period (15 minutes);

· The difference between the times obtained at the end of the two tracks must not exceed 3.5 seconds.


- X CATEGORY – includes 7 players (2 First League players and 5 Second League players) who cannot be included in any of the other categories. They have shown poor results or very poor results or situations in which the poor results were associated with abandoning the test. In the case of these players the test has shown: muscular injuries, a weak heart rate profile, very high concentrations of lactic acid in the blood, the times obtained at the end of the two tests of more than 23 seconds etc. Their poor results have not allowed them to be included in the other categories.

- Z CATEGORY – includes 5 players (3 First League players and 2 Second League players) who cannot be included in any of the other categories because either the times obtained at the end of the tracks, their heart rate profile or the concentration of lactic acid are not homogenous enough to assure the inclusion of the players in one category or another. Some of their results can be considered acceptable but one or some of the others results have shown an either superior or inferior positioning compared to the category where they could be included.


- SPECIAL ELEMENTS CATEGORY

It includes players who have obtained outstanding test results and who have an excellent genetical background. We confine ourselves to confirm their existence and to present their test results and other data that could be of interest. There is no use to analyze their individual physiological or effort components. We must only accept their individuality, especially due to their extremely high level, far from any possible errors in the methodology of collecting the effort data in the field. These results have been obtained after at least 2 K’TEST TOTAL testing sessions, so their results are beyond any doubt.

1- A national team player (28-year-old central midfielder) with an amazing heart rate profile, which shows an outstanding cardio-vascular economy (just a slight increase in the heart rate after each 20-metre sprint). In contradiction to it and very hard to explain, there is an enormous concentration of lactic acid in the post-effort period: 14.6 mMoles/l. At the same time, the very high level of the heart rate during and after the two tracks is in contradiction with the low heart rate during the 20-metre and 50-metre sprints.

- The concentration of lactic acid in the post-resting period (15 min. after the effort period) is of 9.6 mMoles/l.;

- The times obtained at the end of the tracks: 18’’8/100 (the first track) and 19’’1/100 (the second track), with a difference of 0.3 sec. This insignificant difference shows an extraordinary tolerance of the body to the very high concentration of lactic acid. The huge amount of lactic acid in the blood and in the muscles (and implicitly in the nerves) does not affect the speed-force-skill parameters during the second track.

- Within half a playing season he played in 6 international matches and 22 national cup and championships matches.

Final mention: the player does not suffer from effort bradycardia pathology.

The heart rate chart.


2First League player (23 year-old forward) with an amazing speed and skill; an extraordinarily ‘neat’ heart rate profile (which means that the cardio-vascular system is in good relation with the energy metabolism and has an immediate reaction to the alternation of the rest and effort periods, obvious in the case of the 20-metre sprints) and great cardio-vascular opportunities. Comment: there is an obvious lack of specific training (see the final part of the chart, where the heart rate curve goes up abruptly, from second to second). The player runs out of energy and metabolical reserves quite rapidly.

- The concentration of lactic acid in the post-effort period (7.3 mMoles/l.) confirms the above comment.

- The concentration of lactic acid in the resting period (15 min. after the effort period) is of 5.7 mMoles/l and highlights the deficiencies in training as well.

- The results obtained at the end of the two tracks: 17’’6/100 (the first track), which is quite exceptional, and 18’’9/100 (the second track). The difference between them is very high: 1.3 sec.

The whole neuro-muscular and metabolical systems collapsed under the burden of the final energy needs. This shows a potential of adapting to effort of only 5-6 min. It can be stated that this player has not faced the pressure of the lactic acid during the training sessions or even during the football games. He shows a high level of sensitivity to the presence of the lactic acid in his blood.

- Within half of the playing season he played 21 national cup and championships matches.

The heart rate chart.


3 -Champions League player (27-year-old offensive midfielder). He has a very high level of speed-force features and outstanding performances in linear speeding (2’’581/1000, 20 metres, linear, stand-up start). It can be said that, given his great level of performance, the times and resting parameters required by the K’TEST TOTAL are not difficult to meet.

- However, he proves to be just a linear player, because the track results are good but not outstanding (as in the case of his linear performances): 18.4/100 (the first track) and 19’’1/100 (the second track). The heart rate profile shows a good energy economy on the agonistic-antagonistic-muscle complexes that are specific for the following biomechanical structures: spurt, high running rate, braking. Given his speed abilities, we can say that the post-effort accumulation of lactic acid (7.2 mMoles.l) is caused mostly by the effort during the tracks ( see the 0.7-second difference between the tracks).

- Another interesting element is the very small heart rate after the tracks comparing it to the 20-metre and 50-metre sprints. Can it be stated that the effort level is increased only by the above-mentioned biomechanical structures? Is it only the intensity of the inter-muscular coordination specific to the changes in direction, jumps, braking on one foot etc. that particularly challenge (the biomechanical structures which have not undergone special training) and lead to energy consumption?

- There is a fairly high concentration of lactic acid in the resting period (15 min.): 5.4 mMoles/l.;

- Can it be said that this player does not have a very good capacity of specific effort? However, a medium ratio of the heart rate (though very low, but maybe as good as of the A category players) does not give an exact account of the actions that have been carried out or of the task distribution given by the morpho-physiological components of the effort in the attempt of making the activity easier to perform.

- Within half of the playing season he played in 4 international matches and 21 national cup and championships matches.

The heart rate chart.










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