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-  B CATEGORY: The B CATEGORY players have a good capacity of effort, a medium level of a lactic acid accumulation in the blood (6.5-9.6 mMoles/l.) and an obvious difference between the times obtained after the two tracks (less than 0.8 seconds), as well as weak post-effort metabolical activity (up to 25% in 15 minutes).

Table with the test results of the B  CATEGORY players.

    * These players have played in games in their national championships but also in international, inter-clubs or national competitions.

Table with the test results of the B  CATEGORY players.

    * These players have played in games in their national championships but also in international, inter-clubs or national competitions.

The reference - chart of the heart rate for the B  CATEGORY players.


1- Though the heart rate curve profile shows a tendency of adjusting to effort, a few observations should be made:

· Immediately after the first track (the first 20-metre and 50-metre sprints) the heart rate tends to reach around 170 pulsations/min. (more than 90% of the heart rate for many of the players). This proves a high level of physiological and metabolical activity during effort. It is obvious that the density and intensity of the work required by the test goes beyond what was done during the training session.

· The heart rate goes near the critical point (180 pulsations/min.) towards the half of the test and it only reaches it near the end of the test.

· Its slow increase (for all the players tested) indicates a good level of adjustment regarding the capacity of effort but more on aerobic level and less on lactacid level.

· Getting to the peak of the effort during the two tracks, with its necessary amount of time (20’’), its structure and type, requires a considerable metabolical activity which influences the heart rate curve and determines a high level of gas-energy exchanges. This signals the lack of specially designed exercises for this type of effort in the players’ training sessions. After all the effort, the body tries hard to get everything to normal, but the level of the necessary physiological parameters does not come near the limit that the moves specific to the football game are comfortable to the players (it is clearly a poor level of adjustment to this type of effort).

· As a consequence of the above-mentioned aspects, the great difference between the two peaks of effort during the two tracks highlights the maximum level of the individual capacities, beyond which the player does no longer have efficient control of his own moves.

2- The amount of lactic acid accumulated post-effort indicates the proximity of the limits beyond which the player finds it difficult to support effort at the required parameters. In such circumstances, on the level of playing efficiency, his evolution is questionable, just like the general picture of his playing abilities if, by its rhythm and determination, the game leads to constant effort. At the same time, the poor post-effort metabolical activity (15’) points out to possible individual genetical limitations in the capacity of adjusting to effort (if specific training has been done) or deficiencies of specific training (if there are no genetical limitations).

3- The difference between the times obtained at the end of the two tracks clearly shows that the effort made influenced the human body considerably. It leads to deficiencies in keeping control of his moves at high levels of intensity, as well as to obvious difficulties of carrying out the task efficiently in the near future.

- Covering the track for the second time in the shortest time possible depends more on the energy and metabolical reserves in the muscles (which provide the moves with freshness, reactivity and ‘clarity’) and less on the player’s maximum mental implication. The fact that three quarters of the players finish the track in a longer time (0.5 sec.) indicates a change in the energy and neuro-muscular relations. What might this be caused by? Exhausting / blocking of the neuro-transmitters, the large amount of lactic acid in the blood or muscles, the lack of phosphogenous support in the myofibrils or could it be something else? These questions regarding the physiology of the effort are in fact questions regarding the training methodology: Is the level of specific aerobic adjustment the optimum level? Have the players done enough training to develop endurance in speeding conditions? Is the naturally charged force training within the right speed-explosion parameters required by the present-day performance level? These are only a few aspects revealed by analyzing the results.

Table with the distribution of the number of games for the B CATEGORY players.

4- Considering the number of games, it is questionable whether the lack of specific training is the only thing that causes these players (players in the national teams, Champions League or Europa League players) to be kept as substitutes or not to be allowed to play even if they have been called on. The rhythm of such games and the amount of effort to be made in these games can lead to poor players’ performances towards the end of the game.

5- The metabolical difficulties that the players have can be noticed at the end of the test, by the BORG CR 10 SCALE grading. The player’s perception of the difficulty of the test is at a level of total involvement in carrying it out (the large number of grades 9 is a proof). The maximum reserves of the body have not been used yet (even if there are cases of grade 10), but nobody was graded 11 on the BORG CR 10 SCALE. All the data analysis (including the heart rate, the amount of lactic acid accumulated post-effort and post-resting and the results obtained at the end of the second track) come as a proof. Before repeating the track the player is tired but not exhausted or in metobolical or cardio-vascular collapse.

Conclusion: For this category of players there are premises favourable to the development of the capacity of specific effort to a high level, similar to the previous category. The promotion to the A category can be done only by undergoing a well-structured methodological training programme. To contradict this statement means to take each particular case and tackle his individual features and problems.

FINAL PROFILE. From a physiological point of view the specific features of this category are the following:

· The heart rate during the 20-metre and 50-metre sprints (including the resting periods needed) must be of max. 170 pulsations/min. and must not exceed 175 pulsations/min towards the end of the first track (before the second track).

· After carrying the first track the heart rate curve must go down first and then it may go up slowly. It is desirable that the heart rate curve should include a few down trajectories (less than reference rate) to highlight the resting periods. This shows the presence of adjustment to effort and makes it certain that there are good premises for a proper adjustment of the cardio-vascular system.

· The heart rate curve must go down constantly and obviously especially in the first part of the test, even if afterwards it reaches a straight line for a while (it is compulsory that the heart rate should not exceed 150 pulsations/min.), during which the excess of lactic acid may be eliminated. This shows that the morpho-functional capacity of adjusting to effort of the cardio-vascular system overruns the metabolical lactacid capacity.

· A compulsory requirement for this category is that the time to finish the track must not exceed 19’’8/100. This is the minimum amount of time needed to play at top speed, regardless of the level of the other effort components.

· Under no circumstances should the difference of times obtained at the end of the two tracks be more than 1 second (referred to as a chronometer/chronometer man error) because it leads to classification of the player in another category.

· Although the present-day football standards do not require it, a concentration of lactic acid in the capillary blood of max. 9mMoles/l. immediately after the test certifies that the players have an acceptable level of adjustment to specific effort. This shows that they can cope with the requirements of the modern football game to a certain extent.

· It is compulsory that, within 15 minutes of rest, the body should be able to metabolize a part of the amount of lactic acid that it had at the end of the test (more than 10%). This proves a good aerobic background.


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